### Teaching and Group Activities for Understanding

**Day 1 Teaching**

Write on the board 4658 + 198 and 4658 + 205. Children work in pairs, one to work out each calculation. What do you notice about 198 and 205? What calculation could you work out that will help both of you? Agree that 4658 + 200 will be a useful step towards calculating both additions. Repeat with additions/subtractions of other near multiples.

**Group Activities**

-- Add, then subtract near multiples of 10, 100, 1000 to/from 5468.

-- Add/subtract near multiples of 10, 100, 1000 to/from 23,456.

**Day 2 Teaching**

Show the children some ‘Mental addition and subtraction’ calculations, all to be worked out mentally. No written column methods are allowed today! Point to £2.68 + □ = £3. Discuss, in pairs, what number fact can be used to help find the answer. Repeat with others that entail different mental strategies, including place value addition and subtraction.**Group Activities**

-- Play fluency challenges – pairs to 100, £1 and 1 (numbers with two decimal places), then play an online game using pairs to 1.

-- Play against the clock, matching mental calculations to answers.

**Day 3 Teaching**

Write these equations on the board: 134 + 8 = 200 − □; 32 × 4 = □ × 2; 48 ÷ 4 = 12 × □; 3.6 × □ = 10 – 2.8

Tell me what you see. What do these equations mean? Emphasise that each equation must balance. Go through the equations, in turn: What numbers are missing? Work in groups of four to play a number sentences ‘Consequences’ game, to generate equations that balance, e.g. four different operations, each with the answer 72.**Group Activities**

-- Write sets of balancing equations, using a mix of operations in each equation and across each set.