Second Look Science

Science Year 6 The Science of Sport

There is a lot more to sport than meets the eye and it is your job to explore the science behind it. Investigate and explore the grounds, the kit, the people, the physics and night time matches... and even reflect on your own sporting prowess in this revision block that can be taught across a half term, or in the form of a science week.

Session 1 Tantalising turf

Objectives

All sorts of pitches need good quality, durable and well looked after grass. Can you explore and classify a range of grasses and suggest the best for the job? Have a go at maintaining your own section of grass and investigate the best conditions to tantalising turf.

Science Objectives
i) Describe how living things are classified into broad groups according to common observable characteristics and based on similarities and differences, including microorganisms, plants and animals.

Working Scientifically

  1. Plan different types of scientific enquiries to answer questions, including recognising and controlling variables where necessary.
  2. Take measurements, using a range of scientific equipment, with increasing accuracy and precision, taking repeat readings when appropriate.
  3. Record data and results of increasing complexity using scientific diagrams and labels, classification keys, tables, scatter graphs, bar and line graphs.
  4. Identify scientific evidence that has been used to support or refute ideas or arguments.

You Will Need

Provided Resources

  • Images of grass structure and types
  • Properties of good sports turf & conditions for growth
  • Grass grading system
  • Investigation questions & equipment (including turf)

Teaching and Activities

Teaching

  • Create a classification key for given grasses.
  • Identify key characteristics of sports pitch suitable grass.
  • Set up an investigation to determine the best conditions for turf growth.

Activities

  1. Identify characteristics of grass and create their own classification key for given grasses.
  2. Recommend a seed mix for sports pitch turf.
  3. Set up an investigation to determine the best methods for turf maintenance.

Investigation - classification
Identify characteristics of grass and create their own classification key for given grasses.

Vocabulary
Classification, grass, angiosperm, growth, monocotyledon, key, variables, conditions for growth, conclusions

Session 2 Sports kit and equipment enquiries

Objectives

Explore the science of sports kit materials and why some fabrics are better than others. Carry out an investigation and compare the materials different sports balls are made from. Examine the properties of Paralympian biomechanical materials and how they impact on disability sport.

Science Objectives
i) Compare and group together everyday materials on the basis of their properties.

ii) Give reasons, based on evidence from comparative and fair tests, for the particular uses of everyday materials, including metals, wood and plastic.

Working Scientifically

  1. Plan different types of scientific enquiries to answer questions, including recognising and controlling variables where necessary.
  2. Take measurements, using a range of scientific equipment, with increasing accuracy and precision, taking repeat readings when appropriate.
  3. Record data and results of increasing complexity using scientific diagrams and labels, classification keys, tables, scatter graphs, bar and line graphs.
  4. Use test results to make predictions to set up further comparative and fair tests.
  5. Report and present findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal relationships and explanations of and degree of trust in results, in oral and written forms such as displays and other presentations.
  6. Identify scientific evidence that has been used to support or refute ideas or arguments.

You Will Need

Provided Resources

  • Sports kit images
  • Photos of Paralympian biomechanical prosthetics & wheelchairs
  • Suggested fair tests and sticky-note investigation materials

Additional Resources

  • Football shirts and cotton t-shirts
  • Internet access & recording equipment


Weblinks
Thermoplastics in Prosthetics from www.YouTube.com
3D printed cycling prosthetic from https://3dprintingindustry.com

Teaching and Activities

Teaching

  • Investigate and compare the properties of cotton and modern sports materials.
  • Research the properties of materials used for equipment and prosthetics in Paralympian sports.

Activities

  1. Identify and compare the properties of sports top materials.
  2. Investigate the properties of modern football shirt material in comparison to cotton shirts.
  3. Identify the properties of Paralympian biomechanics materials and understand the positive impact they have on disability sport.

Investigation - fair testing, exploring, pattern seeking
Identify and compare the properties of sports top materials.

Vocabulary
Materials, properties, fair test, investigate, fitness for purpose, comparison

Session 3 Harnessing sports forces

Objectives

Can you identify the invisible impact of forces on a sport? Explore how friction and air resistance can be used to improve performance and have a go at creating exact sizes of impact forces needed to score goals.

Science Objectives
i) Explain that unsupported objects fall towards the Earth because of the force of gravity acting between the Earth and the falling object.

ii) Identify the effects of air resistance, water resistance and friction, that act between moving surfaces.

iii) Recognise that some mechanisms, including levers, pulleys and gears, allow a smaller force to have a greater effect.

Working Scientifically

  1. Plan different types of scientific enquiries to answer questions, including recognising and controlling variables where necessary.
  2. Take measurements, using a range of scientific equipment, with increasing accuracy and precision, taking repeat readings when appropriate.
  3. Record data and results of increasing complexity using tables.
  4. Use test results to make predictions to set up further comparative and fair tests.
  5. Report and present findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal relationships and explanations of and degree of trust in results, in oral and written forms.
  6. Identify scientific evidence that has been used to support or refute ideas or arguments.

Extended Writing Opportunity
Persuasive writing: Complete research or investigations into the materials used for various sports balls or bats/rackets and clubs and write a sports company advertising leaflet extolling the virtues of the new equipment.

Teaching and Activities

Teaching

  • Set up an investigation into the friction of football boots and present findings.
  • Set up an investigation into air pressure on a basketball and present findings.
  • Set up an investigation into friction of wicket keeper’s gloves and present findings.

Activities

  1. Identify the forces that can impact on a sports game.
  2. Suggest how friction, air resistance and gravity can be exploited in sports.
  3. Try and control the level of a force exerted on a ball in order to successfully score a goal.

Investigation - fair testing, exploring, pattern seeking
Identify the forces that can impact on a sports game and suggest how friction, air resistance and gravity can be exploited in sports.

Vocabulary
Force, push, pull, air resistance, friction, fair test, variables

Session 4 Human body and sports

Objectives

Explore the ways that nutrition, exercise and injury prevention impact on sports performance. Design an eating and exercise plan as well as your own warm up and warm down routine.

Science Objectives
i) Recognise the impact of diet, exercise, drugs and lifestyle on the way their bodies function.

Working Scientifically

1. Identify scientific evidence that has been used to support or refute ideas or arguments.

Teaching and Activities

Teaching

  • Understand the role of diet for an athlete.
  • Know that muscles need to be warmed up and down to prevent injury.
  • Identify the amount and type of exercise needed to keep the body healthy and sports fit.

Activities

  1. Design a sports training plan for a child.
  2. Design an eating plan for a junior athlete.
  3. Design a warm up and warm down routine for protecting against sports injuries.

Investigation - fair testing, exploring, pattern seeking
Investigate the impact of exercise on the human body and the impact of nutrition on sports performance.

Vocabulary
Diet, exercise, muscles, heart rate, lifestyle, fitness, injury

Session 5 Sports talent

Objectives

Are you born with sports talent or can training alone get you to the top? Explore the science behind biological and environmental characteristics in the sports arena.

Science Objectives
i) Recognise that living things produce offspring of the same kind, but normally offspring vary and are not identical to their parents.

Working Scientifically

  1. Take measurements, using a range of scientific equipment, with increasing accuracy and precision, taking repeat readings when appropriate.
  2. Report and present findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal relationships and explanations of and degree of trust in results, in oral and written forms.
  3. Identify scientific evidence that has been used to support or refute ideas or arguments.

Extended Writing Opportunity
Information text: Create a sports information leaflet about the factors that impact on sports talent.

Teaching and Activities

Teaching

  • Note that some traits are inherited and others develop due to environmental factors.
  • Investigate some inherited traits that impact positively on sports performance.

Activities

  1. Identify the influence of inheritance and environmental factors on sports performance.
  2. Create a sports information leaflet on factors that impact on sports talent.
  3. Identify some inherited personal traits that may impact on sports performance.

Investigation - analysing secondary sources
Identify the influence of inheritance and environmental factors on sports performance.

Vocabulary
Inheritance, environmental factors, genetic, muscles, heart rate, cardiac capacity, lung capacity

Session 6 Lighting up sport stadiums

Objectives

Can you ensure the stadium lights are positioned correctly to avoid distracting shadows? Can you make sure that the flood lights are bright enough and can be switched on and off manually and by timer? Can you make the case for alternative forms of energy to run sports stadiums? The game is afoot!

Science Objectives
i) Associate the brightness of a lamp or the volume of a buzzer with the number and voltage of cells used in the circuit.

ii) Compare and give reasons for variations in how components function, including the brightness of bulbs, the loudness of buzzers and the on/off position of switches.

iii) Use recognised symbols when representing a simple circuit in a diagram.

Working Scientifically

  1. Plan different types of scientific enquiries to answer questions, including recognising and controlling variables where necessary.
  2. Take measurements, using scientific equipment, with increasing accuracy and precision.
  3. Record data and results of increasing complexity using scientific diagrams and labels.
  4. Report and present findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal relationships and explanations of and degree of trust in results, in oral and written forms.
  5. Identify scientific evidence that has been used to support or refute ideas or arguments.

Other Curriculum Areas
Design and Technology

  • Use research and develop design criteria to inform the design of innovative, functional, appealing products that are fit for purpose, aimed at particular individuals or groups. Generate, develop, model and communicate their ideas through discussion, annotated sketches, cross-sectional and exploded diagrams and prototypes. Understand and use electrical systems in their products.

Teaching and Activities

Teaching

  • Design and make a circuit with bright bulbs, a switch and a timer.
  • Draw a detailed circuit diagram using the correct symbols.
  • Identify and research alternative sources of energy.
  • Design and make a prototype of a floodlight system for a sports stadium.

Activities

  1. Investigate and suggest effective positioning of stadium floodlights for a night time game.
  2. Design and create circuits to ensure floodlights in a stadium are bright enough.
  3. Research and outline viable alternative energy sources for sports stadiums.

Investigation - fair testing, exploring, pattern seeking
Design and create circuits to ensure floodlights in a stadium are bright enough.

Vocabulary
Circuit, voltage, cell, battery, bulb, switch, timer, bright, dim, light meter