Forces

Science Year 5/6 Welcome to Force-Land

A new theme park is in the planning process and you have been selected to join the development team. Explore a range of forces and mechanisms, and see if you can incorporate them into a number of theme park rides.

Session 1 Bungee-jump: gravity and balanced forces

Objectives

Force-land needs you to undertake basic forces training so that you can advise on each of its new force-based rides. Today’s challenge is to explore a bungee ride and gravity’s important (and possibly dangerous!) role.

Science Objectives
i) Explain that unsupported objects fall towards the Earth because of the force of gravity acting between the Earth and the falling object

Working Scientifically

  1. Planning different types of scientific enquiries to answer questions, including recognising and controlling variables where necessary
  2. Taking measurements, using a range of scientific equipment, with increasing accuracy and precision
  3. Recording results using scientific diagrams and labels, tables, and scatter graphs
  4. Reporting and presenting findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal relationships and explanations of and degree of trust in results, in written forms
  5. Identifying scientific evidence that has been used to support or refute ideas or arguments

You Will Need

Provided Resources

  • Force training guidance
  • Possible enquiry questions
  • Post-it resources
  • Investigation guidance
  • Sample advice statements


Additional Resources

  • Bouncy balls
  • Investigation equipment


Weblinks
Bungee Jumping video from www.shutterstock.com

Teaching and Activities

Teaching

  • To know what gravity and resistance are and identify balanced and unbalanced forces (Yr5&6).
  • To investigate and report the effect of weight (gravity) on the stretch of an elastic band (Yr5&6).

Activities

  1. Identify and label gravity and resistance forces, identifying balanced and unbalanced forces (Yr5&6)
  2. Plan and carry out an investigation into the forces at play in a bungee jump (Yr5 – with support & Yr6 – ind)
  3. Select (Yr5) or compose (Yr6) guidance for H&S on a bungee jump, based on investigation findings (Yr5&6)

Investigation
Bungee Jump Ride: gravity and balanced forces. Force-land needs you to undertake basic forces training so that you can advise on each of its new force-based rides. Today’s challenge is to explore a bungee ride and gravity’s important (and possibly dangerous!) role. (Exploring, Problem solving, Fair testing)
Years 5&6 - Identify and label gravity and resistance forces, identifying balanced and unbalanced forces
Years 5&6 - Plan and carry out an investigation into the forces at play in a bungee jump (Y5 – with support & Y6 - ind)
Years 5&6 - Select (Y5) or compose (Y6) guidance for H&S on a bungee jump, based on investigation findings


Vocabulary
Support, fall, Earth, gravity, balancing force, resistance force, weight, Newtons, elasticity, variables

Session 2 Rolling car ride: friction

Objectives

Your team needs to explore the science of a rolling car ride and make recommendations for the right kind of surface – fast enough for some fun, but not so fast that that it scares the visitors away.

Science Objectives
i) Identify the effects of friction, that acts between moving surfaces

Working Scientifically

  1. Planning different types of scientific enquiries to answer questions, including recognising and controlling variables where necessary
  2. Taking measurements, using a range of scientific equipment, with increasing accuracy and precision, taking repeat readings when appropriate
  3. Recording data and results of increasing complexity using scientific diagrams and labels, tables, and scatter graphs
  4. Using test results to make predictions to set up further comparative and fair tests
  5. Reporting and presenting findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal relationships and explanations of and degree of trust in results, in oral and written forms such as displays and other presentations

Teaching and Activities

Teaching

  • To investigate the effect friction has on movement (Yr5&6).
  • To identify an appropriate amount of friction for the safe running of a rolling car ride (Yr5&6).
  • To draw a force diagram for a rolling car (Yr6).


Activities

  1. Investigate the effect of ground friction on the force needed to move a rolling car, taking accurate measurements and recording data effectively (Yr5 - with support/Yr6 –ind.)
  2. Recommend a ground covering that creates the right level of friction for the safe (but fun) movement of a rolling car on a ride (Yr5&6)
  3. Draw a diagram showing how forces act on a rolling car (Yr6)

Investigation
Rolling Car Ride: friction. Explore the science of a rolling car ride and make recommendations for the right kind of surface – fast enough for some fun, but not so fast that that it scares the visitors away. (Exploring, Problem solving, Pattern seeking, Fair testing)
Years 5&6 - Investigate the effect of ground friction on the force needed to move a rolling car, taking accurate measurements and recording data effectively(Y5 - with support & Y6 –ind)
Years 5&6 - Recommend a ground covering that creates the right level of friction for the safe (but fun) movement of a rolling car on a ride
Year 6 - Draw a diagram showing how forces act on a rolling car


Vocabulary
Variables, accuracy, gravity, friction, air resistance, causal relationship

Session 3 Parachute ride: air resistance

Objectives

A parachute ride is planned, but which parachute is best? Your team needs to work out the best material, size of parachute and length of strings for the ride.

Science Objectives
i) Explain that unsupported objects fall towards the Earth because of the force of gravity acting between the Earth and the falling object
ii) Identify the effects of air resistance, that acts between moving surfaces

Working Scientifically

  1. Planning different types of scientific enquiries to answer questions, including recognising and controlling variables where necessary
  2. Taking measurements, using a range of scientific equipment, with increasing accuracy and precision, taking repeat readings when appropriate
  3. Recording data and results of increasing complexity using scientific diagrams & labels, and tables
  4. Using test results to make predictions to set up further comparative and fair tests
  5. Reporting and presenting findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal relationships and explanations of and degree of trust in results, in oral form

Other Curriculum Areas
Maths: Calculate and compare the area of rectangles (including squares), using square centimetres (cm2); use all four operations to solve problems involving measure using decimal notation, including scaling.

Teaching and Activities

Teaching

  • To investigate the effectiveness of various materials, sizes and string length of parachute (Yr5&6).
  • To record data using a ‘best of three’ approach (Yr5&6).
  • To annotate a parachute diagram with forces (Yr5&6).

Activities

  1. Set up and carry out a guided parachute investigation exploring shape, size and string length (Yr5&6)
  2. Calculate the area of the parachute and its scaled up speed (Yr5&6)
  3. Recommend parachute material, size and string length in the form of a diagram & record sheet (Yr5&6)


Investigation
Parachute Ride: air resistance. Decide which parachute is best - your team needs to work out the best material, size of parachute and length of strings for the ride. (Exploring, Problem solving, Pattern seeking, Fair testing)
Years 5&6 - Set up and carry out a guided parachute investigation exploring shape, size and string length
Years 5&6 - Calculate the area of the parachute and its scaled up speed
Years 5&6 - Recommend parachute material, size and string length in the form of a diagram & record sheet


Vocabulary
Variables, fall, Earth, gravity, air resistance, friction, moving surfaces, speed, accuracy, causal relationship

Session 4 Canyon ride: water resistance

Objectives

Can you select the best boat and type of water for a canyon ride that runs safely without sinking and with the least resistance?

Science Objectives
i) Explain that unsupported objects fall towards the Earth because of the force of gravity acting between the Earth and the falling object
ii) Identify the effects of water resistance, that acts between moving surfaces

Working Scientifically

  1. Planning different types of scientific enquiries to answer questions, including recognising and controlling variables where necessary
  2. Taking measurements, using a range of scientific equipment, with increasing accuracy and precision, taking repeat readings when appropriate
  3. Recording data and results of increasing complexity using scientific diagrams and labels, tables, scatter graphs
  4. Using test results to make predictions to set up further comparative and fair tests
  5. Reporting and presenting findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal relationships and explanations of and degree of trust in results, in oral and written forms

Teaching and Activities

Teaching

  • To investigate and identify the effect of boat shape on water resistance (Yr5&6).
  • To investigate and identify the effect of salty water on water resistance (Yr5&6).
  • To draw a diagram showing water and air resistance (Yr5&6).


Activities

  1. Investigate (lead – Yr6) and suggest which shape of boat is best to beat the water resistance of a canyon ride river (Yr5&6)
  2. Investigate (lead – Yr6) the impact of salt and fresh water on water resistance (Yr5&6)
  3. Draw diagrams showing the effect of water and air resistance (Yr5&6)

Investigation
Canyon Ride: water resistance. Select the best boat and type of water for a canyon ride that runs safely without sinking and with the least resistance. (Exploring, Problem solving, Pattern seeking, Fair testing)
Years 5&6 - Investigate and suggest which shape of boat is best to beat the water resistance of a canyon ride river
Years 5&6 - Investigate the impact of salt and fresh water on water resistance
Years 5&6 - Draw diagrams showing the effect of water and air resistance


Vocabulary
Variables, accuracy, causal relationship, gravity, water resistance, up thrust, friction

Session 5 Lift an 'Elephant' ride: levers and pulleys

Objectives

The management wants a ride that uses levers and pulleys but doesn’t know the science of how to use them. Look at the various options and come up with some key patterns and explanations.

Science Objectives
i) Explain that unsupported objects fall towards the Earth because of the force of gravity acting between the Earth and the falling object
ii) Recognise that some mechanisms, including levers and pulleys, allow a smaller force to have a greater effect

Working Scientifically

  1. Planning different types of scientific enquiries to answer questions, including recognising and controlling variables where necessary
  2. Taking measurements, using a range of scientific equipment, with increasing accuracy and precision, taking repeat readings when appropriate
  3. Recording data and results of increasing complexity using scientific diagrams & labels, tables and scatter graphs
  4. Using test results to make predictions to set up further comparative and fair tests
  5. Reporting and presenting findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal relationships and explanations of and degree of trust in results, in written forms

Other Curriculum Areas
Maths: Use all four operations to solve problems involving measure using decimal notation, including scaling

You Will Need

Provided Resources

  • Types of lever
  • Lever investigation guidance
  • Pulley images
  • Instructions and guidance
  • Calculations for positioning a fulcrum


Additional Resources

  • Investigation equipment

Teaching and Activities

Teaching

  • To investigate how levers work exploring how the position of fulcrum, load and effort impacts on use (Yr5&6).
  • To investigate how pulleys work and how the number of pulleys used changes the effort required (Yr5&6).
  • To draw diagrams that explain the forces, loads, weights and efforts for levers and pulleys (Yr5&6).


Activities

  1. Complete a lever investigation, noting how the position of the fulcrum impacts on its effectiveness (Yr5&6)
  2. Complete a pulley investigation noting the correlation between effort required & the number of pulleys (Yr5&6)
  3. Draw diagrams showing the forces, loads, weights and efforts for levers and pulleys (Yr5&6)


Investigation
Lift an ‘Elephant’ Ride: levers and pulleys. The management wants a ride that uses levers and pulleys but doesn’t know the science of how to use them. Look at the various options and come up with some key patterns and explanations. (Exploring, Problem solving, Pattern seeking, Fair testing)
Years 5&6 - Complete a lever investigation, noting how the position of the fulcrum impacts on its effectiveness
Years 5&6 - Complete a pulley investigation noting the correlation between effort required & the number of pulleys
Years 5&6 - Draw diagrams showing the forces, loads, weights and efforts for levers and pulleys


Vocabulary
Variables, accuracy, precision, causal relationships, gravity, mechanisms, levers, pulleys, transfers, force

Session 6 Ferris wheel: gears

Objectives

The management wants a Ferris wheel ride that uses gears. Can you explore the options and note which gear ratios will keep the wheel moving at just the right speed?

Science Objectives
i) Recognise that gear mechanisms allow a smaller force to have a greater effect
ii) Identify the effects of friction, that acts between moving surfaces

Working Scientifically

  1. Planning different types of scientific enquiries to answer questions, including recognising and controlling variables where necessary
  2. Recording data and results of increasing complexity using scientific diagrams and labels, tables, scatter graphs, bar and line graphs
  3. Using test results to make predictions to set up further comparative and fair tests
  4. Reporting and presenting findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal relationships and explanations of and degree of trust in results, in oral and written forms such as displays and other presentations

Other Curriculum Areas
Maths: Solve problems involving multiplication and division, including scaling by simple fractions and problems involving simple rates


You Will Need

Provided Resources

  • Ferris wheel and gear images with statements
  • Questions for investigations
  • Forces quiz
  • Fairground photos


Additional Resources

  • Gear construction kits


Weblinks
Ferris wheel moving from www.youtube.com
Gears: to 9 mins from www.sciencekids.co.nz

Teaching and Activities

Teaching

  • Understand how gears and gear ratios work (Yr5&6)
  • Identify appropriate gear combinations for given effects (Yr5&6)


Activities

  1. Investigate how gears work, identify gear ratios and select possible outcomes from given gear ratios (Yr5)
  2. Investigate how gears work, calculate some gear ratios and suggest possible outcomes from given gear ratios (Yr6)

Investigation
Ferris Wheel: gears. The management wants a Ferris wheel ride that uses gears. Explore the options and note which gear ratios will keep the wheel moving at just the right speed. (Exploring, Problem solving, Pattern seeking, Fair testing)
Year 5 - Investigate how gears work, identify gear ratios and select possible outcomes from given gear ratios
Year 6 - Investigate how gears work, calculate some gear ratios and suggest possible outcomes from given gear ratios


Vocabulary
Variables, accuracy, precision, gravity, friction, moving surfaces, mechanisms, gears, transfers