Properties of Materials

Science Year 5/6 Special Effects Materials

The British Film Institute (BFI) directors need a new team of special effects technicians for a series of upcoming movies. You will need to explore a range of materials to create the desired special effects and compile a technician’s guide.

Session 1 Mud, glorious mud (making and separating mixtures)

Objectives

Dissolve into your first challenge by making an array of muddy forms, from muddy puddles to lumps of squidgy mud – you will also be asked to try and reset your materials for the next take.

Science Objectives
i) Compare and group together everyday materials on the basis of their solubility properties
ii) Know that some materials will dissolve in liquid to form a solution
iii) Use knowledge of solids, liquids and gases to decide how mixtures might be separated, including through filtering, sieving and evaporating
iv) Demonstrate that dissolving, mixing and changes of state are reversible changes

Working Scientifically

  1. Planning different types of scientific enquiries to answer questions
  2. Recording data and results of increasing complexity using tables
  3. Reporting and presenting findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal relationships and explanations and degree of trust in results, in written form

Teaching and Activities

Teaching

  • Plan (Y6) and carry out a series of investigations, mixing and changing the temperature of given substances (Y5&6).
  • Investigate filtering, sieving, evaporating and changes in temperature as processes to reverse dissolving, mixing and changes of state (Y5&6).
  • Record findings and present methods in written and table form (Y5&6).


Activities

  1. Plan (Y6) and carry out investigations into the mixing and heating/cooling of solids & liquids (Y5&6)
  2. Use sieving, filtration, evaporation and changes in temp to reverse changes (Y5&6)
  3. Record and outline methods and findings, including graphs, in the form of a technician’s brief (Y5&6)


Investigation
Mud, glorious mud. Dissolve into your first challenge by making an array of muddy forms, from muddy puddles to lumps of squidgy mud by investigating what happens when you mix various substances – you will also be asked to try and reset you materials for the next take. (Exploring, Fair testing, Problem solving, Classifying and identifying)
Year 5 - Carry out investigations into the mixing and heating/cooling of solids & liquids. Use sieving, filtration, evaporation and changes in temp to reverse changes then record and outline methods and findings, including graphs, in the form of a technicians brief
Year 6 - Plan and carry out investigations into the mixing and heating/cooling of solids & liquids. Use sieving, filtration, evaporation and changes in temp to reverse changes then record and outline methods and findings, including graphs, in the form of a technicians brief


Vocabulary
Enquiry, solid, liquid, gas, dissolve, soluble, solute, solution, insoluble, heterogeneous/homogeneous mixture, colloid, suspension, reversible, irreversible, changes of state, evaporation, sieving, filtering, heating/cooling

Session 2 Sweet soluble solutions

Objectives

Directors want to know all about the nature of sugar in terms of saturation points, sugar forms and the impact of temperature on its solubility. A large amount needs to be thrown into water and magically disappear for a movie scene – can you advise on the best conditions for this to occur?

Science Objectives
i) Know that some materials will dissolve in liquid to form a solution

Working Scientifically

  1. Planning different types of scientific enquiries to answer questions, including recognising and controlling variables where necessary
  2. Taking measurements, using a range of scientific equipment, with increasing accuracy and precision, taking repeat readings when appropriate
  3. Recording data and results of increasing complexity using scientific diagrams and labels, tables and graphs
  4. Using test results to make predictions to set up further comparative and fair tests
  5. Reporting and presenting findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal relationships and explanations and degree of trust in results, in written form

You Will Need

Provided Resources

  • Match the mixtures game
  • Guidance & resources.


Additional Resources

  • Investigation equipment

Teaching and Activities

Teaching

  • Plan and carry out a series of solubility investigations (Y5&6).
  • Measure volumes and temperatures accurately (Y5&6).
  • Record findings and present methods in table, graph and diagram form (Y5&6).


Activities

  1. Plan and carry out several investigations into solubility of different sugar forms exploring different solvents and temperatures with support (Y5)
  2. Independently plan and carry out several investigations into solubility of different sugar forms exploring different solvents and temperatures (Y6)
  3. Measure volume and temperatures accurately, taking multiple readings to ensure accuracy (Y5&6)
  4. Record findings in tables, graphs and diagrams (Y5&6)


Investigation
Sweet soluble solutions. Directors want to know all about the nature of sugar in terms of saturation points, sugar forms and the impact of temperature on its solubility. A large amount needs to be thrown into water and magically disappear for a movie scene – can you advise on the best conditions for this to occur? (Exploring, Fair testing, Problem solving, Pattern seeking)
Year 5 - Plan and carry out several investigations into solubility of different sugar forms exploring different solvents and temperatures with support
Year 6 - Independently plan and carry out several investigations into solubility of different sugar forms exploring different solvents and temperatures
Years 5&6 - Measure volume and temperatures accurately, taking multiple readings to ensure accuracy and record findings in tables, graphs and diagrams


Vocabulary
Variables, precision, enquiry, solid, liquid, gas, dissolve, soluble, solute, solution, line graph, bar chart

Session 3 Creating explosive special effects

Objectives

Are you ready to make some explosive special effects? The BFI wants to know all about volcanoes and rockets and the optimum conditions for the best eruptions and take-offs. Perfect your effects then video your own movie clip to share with technicians.

Science Objectives
i) Explain that some changes result in the formation of new materials, and that this kind of change is not usually reversible, including changes associated with the action of acid on bicarbonate of soda

Working Scientifically

  1. Planning different types of scientific enquiries to answer questions, including recognising and controlling variables where necessary
  2. Recording data and results of increasing complexity using scientific diagrams and labels, tables and graphs
  3. Using test results to make predictions to set up further comparative and fair tests
  4. Reporting and presenting findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal relationships and explanations and degree of trust in results, in written form

Teaching and Activities

Teaching

  • Create and observe chemical reactions, noting they are non-reversible (Y5&6).
  • Investigate the effect of changing variables on chemical reactions (Y5&6).


Activities

  1. Make observations of non-reversible chemical reactions (Y5)
  2. Suggest explanations for and by-products of non-reversible chemical reactions (Y6)
  3. Plan and carry out investigations into how changes in variables affect reactions (Y5&6)


Investigation
Explosive special effects! Are you ready to make some explosive special effects? The BFI wants to know all about volcanoes and rockets and the best conditions for the best eruptions and take-offs. Investigate the irreversible effects of baking soda and vinegar as well as mixing sodium bicarbonate with water. Perfect your effects then video your own movie clip to share with technicians. (Exploring, Fair testing, Problem solving, Pattern seeking, Classifying and identifying)
Year 5 - Plan and carry out investigations into how changes in variables affect reactions. Carry out investigations into how changes in variables affect reactions. Make observations of non-reversible chemical reactions
Year 6 - Suggest explanations for and by-products of non-reversible chemical reactions. Plan and carry out investigations into how changes in variables affect reactions


Vocabulary
Variables, accuracy, enquiry, solid, liquid, gas, reaction, reactant, non-reversible

Session 4 Ageing props (oxidation and burning)

Objectives

Some changes in materials can’t be reversed and they can produce new materials in the process. Immerse yourself in the world of oxidation and burning and see how they can be used to make props look older than they are.

Science Objectives
i) Explain that some changes result in the formation of new materials, and that this kind of change is not usually reversible, including changes associated with burning

Working Scientifically

  1. Planning different types of scientific enquiries to answer questions, including recognising and controlling variables where necessary
  2. Recording data and results of increasing complexity using scientific diagrams and labels, tables and graphs
  3. Using test results to make predictions to set up further comparative and fair tests
  4. Reporting and presenting findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal relationships and explanations and degree of trust in results, in written form

Teaching and Activities

Teaching

  • Plan, carry out and record findings from oxidation investigations (Y5&6).
  • Outline the optimum conditions for oxidation (Y5&6).
  • Calculate the rate a candle burns at (Y5&6).


Activities

  1. Plan and carry out investigations into conditions needed for rusting (Y5&6)
  2. Observe rusting over time, recording findings and suggesting optimum conditions for rusting (Y5&6)
  3. Calculate a ‘rate of burning’ for a candle (Y5&6)


Investigation
Aging props – oxidisation & burning. Some changes in materials can’t be reversed and they can produce new materials in the process. Immerse yourself in the world of oxidation and burning and see how they can be used to age props. (Exploring, Fair testing, Problem solving, Pattern seeking, Classifying and identifying, Observing over time)
Years 5&6 - Plan and carry out investigations into conditions needed for rusting, observing over time, recording findings and suggesting optimum conditions for rusting
Years 5&6 - Calculate a ‘rate of burning’ for a candle


Vocabulary
Variables, accuracy, precision, enquiry, solid, liquid, gas, rust, oxidation, reaction, reactant

Session 5 Prosthetic wounds and fake blood

Objectives

Have a go at making prosthetic wounds then blend up your fake blood. Can you come up with the best materials and combinations for the job?

Science Objectives
i) Compare everyday materials on the basis of their properties, including their solubility
ii) Know that some materials will dissolve in liquid to form a solution
iii) Use knowledge of solids, liquids and gases to decide how mixtures might be separated, including through filtering, sieving and evaporating

Working Scientifically

  1. Planning different types of scientific enquiries to answer questions, including recognising and controlling variables where necessary
  2. Recording data and results of increasing complexity using scientific diagrams and labels, tables and graphs
  3. Reporting and presenting findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal relationships and explanations and degree of trust in results, in written form

Teaching and Activities

Teaching

  • Investigate a range of material changes (Y5&6).
  • Investigate mixing a range of materials (Y5&6).
  • Record findings and present methods in oral and visual form (Y5&6).


Activities

  1. Make sample prosthetic wounds using materials that have been changed in some way (Y5&6)
  2. Make fake blood through selecting and mixing materials (Y5&6)
  3. Record and outline findings orally and visually (Y5&6)


Investigation
Prosthetics Wounds and Fake Blood. Have a go at making prosthetic wounds then blend up some fake blood. Can you come up with the best materials and combinations for the job? An exploration or reversible and irreversible mixtures and reactions (Exploring, Fair testing, Problem solving, Pattern seeking, Classifying and identifying, Observing over time)
Years 5&6 - Make sample prosthetic wounds using a materials that have been changed in some way and make fake blood through selecting and mixing materials. Record and outline findings orally and visually


Vocabulary
Variables, accuracy, precision, enquiry, solid, liquid, gas, dissolve, soluble, solute, solution, reactant, reaction, reversible, non-reversible

Session 6 The future of special effects

Objectives

Learn about some chemists who have invented very useful new materials and have fun creating new materials. Find out about brand new materials that are still in the development phase of their life and how they could be used in movie special effects.

Science Objectives
i) Explain that some changes result in the formation of new materials

Working Scientifically

  1. Planning different types of scientific enquiries to answer questions, including recognising and controlling variables where necessary
  2. Reporting and presenting findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal relationships and explanations of and degree of trust in results, in oral and written forms such as displays and other presentations
  3. Identifying scientific evidence that has been used to support or refute ideas or arguments

You Will Need

Provided Resources

  • Instructions for making goo
  • Research guidance


Additional Resources

  • Tablets/laptops and internet access
  • Liquid laundry starch
  • PVA glue
  • Mixing bowl
  • Spoon
  • Airtight containers and research guidance.


Weblinks
Applications of graphene from www.graphene.manchester.ac.uk
Information about Geckel from www.northwestern.edu

Teaching and Activities

Teaching

  • Complete research on new materials and their uses (Y5&6).
  • Apply knowledge of materials as they create a new substance (Y5&6).


Activities

  1. Create their own ‘new’ gooey material (Y5&6)
  2. Know about some famous materials inventors (Y5&6)
  3. Research and record information about new materials and their possible uses (Y5&6)


Investigation
The future of SFX. Learn about some chemists who have invented very useful new materials and have fun creating new materials. Find out about brand new materials that are still in the development phase of their life and how they could be used in movie special effects. (Exploring, Analysing secondary sources)
Years 5&6 - Create their own ‘new’ gooey material
Years 5&6 - Know about some famous materials inventors and research and record information about new materials and their possible uses


Vocabulary
Solid, liquid, gas, reversible, non-reversible, experimental