Earth and Space

Science Year 5/6 Space!

Galileo Galilei needs your help at The Roman Inquisition: he needs to prove that the Earth moves round the sun; that the moon moves around the Earth; and that the seasons and day & night are all a consequence of these movements. He needs you to provide experimental evidence, not just current astrological thinking… and he is running out of time!

Session 1 Heliocentricity vs geocentricity

Objectives

Galileo Galilei, one the greatest astronomers the world has ever know, needs help convincing the Roman Inquisition that our solar system is heliocentric… but he needs hard evidence to present to The Inquisition. Can you help him?

Science Objectives
i) Describe the movement of Earth, & other planets, relative to the Sun in the solar system
ii) Describe the movement of the Moon relative to the Earth
iii) Describe the Sun, Earth and Moon as approximately spherical bodies
iv) Use the idea of the Earth’s rotation to explain day and night and the apparent movement of the sun across the sky

Working Scientifically

  1. Planning different types of scientific enquiries to answer questions
  2. Identifying scientific evidence that has been used to support or refute ideas or arguments

Teaching and Activities

Teaching

  • Explore the concepts of a heliocentric and geocentric solar system (Y5&6)
  • Develop scientific enquiry questions and approaches for learning about space (Y5&6)
  • Research online some key facts and evidence about space (Y5&6)


Activities

  1. Know that Galileo’s heliocentric view of the solar system was radical for its time (Y5&6)
  2. Research the key facts/evidence about scientific statements about space (Y5&6)
  3. Match (Y5) or suggest (Y6) enquiry questions for a series of statements about the Earth, sun & moon
  4. Match (Y5) or suggest (Y6) possible scientific approaches to investigating enquiry questions


Investigation
Helio vs Geo centricity - The Roman Inquisition. Galileo Galilei, one the greatest astrologists the world has ever know, needs help convincing the Roman Inquisition that our solar system is heliocentric… but he needs hard evidence to present to The Inquisition. Can you help him? Develop enquiry questions and suggest the ways you could go about working scientifically to answer them. (Problem solving, , Analysing secondary sources)
Year 5 - Match enquiry questions and possible scientific approaches to investigate these, for a series of statements about the Earth, sun & moon
Year 6 - Suggest enquiry questions and possible scientific approaches to investigate these, for a series of statements about the Earth, sun & moon
Years 5&6 - Know that Galileo’s heliocentric view of the solar system was radical for its time and research the key facts/evidence about scientific statements about space


Vocabulary
Heliocentric, geocentric, spherical, solar system, astrology, enquiry, evidence, star, moon, planet, sun, Earth, Galileo, Copernicus

Session 2 Modelling the solar system

Objectives

Can you create a model of the solar system at the current time to show to The Roman Inquisition? Can you get your scales in order or is it all too vast? Explore the planets further and create visual and data based presentations for The Inquisition as well as coming up with some convincing star-gazing arguments for a heliocentric solar system.

Science Objectives
i) Describe the movement of Earth, and other planets, relative to the Sun in the solar system
ii) Describe the Sun, Earth and Moon as approximately spherical bodies

Working Scientifically

  1. Recording data of increasing complexity using tables, scatter graphs, bar and line graphs
  2. Identifying scientific evidence that has been used to support or refute ideas or arguments

Other Curriculum Areas
Art & Design: Develop & improve art & design techniques with creativity & experimentation

Teaching and Activities

Teaching

  • Create a scaled solar system model using spherical representations (Y5&6)
  • Research planetary data online and represent graphically (Y5&6)
  • Analyse & relate night sky images to the Earth’s movement (Y5&6)


Activities

  1. Use fruit to create a model of the solar system, calculating scales and ratios for the solar system (Y5&6)
  2. Research, collate & create graphs for data about the planets (Y5&6)
  3. Paint the planets from known images and the nature of the planets (Y5&6)
  4. Compare (Y5) & draw conclusions (Y6) from online images of our night sky at different times of year


Investigation
Modelling the Solar System. Can you create a model of the solar system at the current time to show to The Roman Inquisition? Can you get your scales in order or is it all too vast? Explore the planets further and create visual and data based presentations for The Inquisition as well as coming up with some convincing star-gazing arguments for a heliocentric solar system. (Problem solving, Analysing secondary sources, Exploring)
Year 5 – Compare images of our night sky at different times of year
Year 6 – Compare draw conclusions from online images of our night sky at different times of year
Years 5&6 - Use fruit to create a model of the solar system, calculating scales and ratios for the solar system and research, collate & create graphs for data about the planets


Vocabulary
Spherical, solar system, scale, enquiry, evidence, star, moon, planet, planet names, Earth, sun, orbit

Session 3 Night and day and the Shadow Ally

Objectives

Can you design and implement some shadow investigations that will prove the movement of the Earth? Note whether shadow clocks or sundials tell us the time more accurately.

Science Objectives
i) Use the idea of the Earth’s rotation to explain day and night and the apparent movement of the sun across the sky

Working Scientifically

  1. Planning different types of scientific enquiries to answer questions, including recognising and controlling variables where necessary
  2. Taking measurements, using a range of scientific equipment, with increasing accuracy and precision, taking repeat readings when appropriate
  3. Recording data and results of increasing complexity using tables and bar graphs
  4. Reporting and presenting findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal relationships and explanations of and degree of trust in results, in oral and written forms
  5. Identifying scientific evidence that has been used to support or refute ideas or arguments

You Will Need

Provided Resources

  • Investigation questions
  • Simulation guidance x2
  • Time conundrums
  • Sundial images
  • Use and design


Additional Resources

  • Rounders post and stand
  • Tape measures
  • Chalk
  • Globes
  • Lego™ people
  • Sticky tack
  • Torches and card


Weblinks
Day & night from www.bbc.co.uk
Sun, shadows & time of day from www.bbc.co.uk
How do we get day & night? from www.bbc.co.uk
The sun – day & night from www.bbc.co.uk
Time & date map from www.timeanddate.com
What if Earth stopped spinning? from www.youtube.com

Teaching and Activities

Teaching

  • Track the Earth’s movement by observing and measuring shadows (Y5&6)
  • Explore the Earth’s movement through simulation and time zones (Y5&6)
  • Solve problems using scientific evidence (Y5&6)


Activities

  1. Explore time zones and relate this to the movement of the Earth (Y5&6)
  2. Use logic and knowledge to solve scientific problems (Y5&6)
  3. Plan (Y6) and carry out (Y5&6) shadow investigations that help support the idea that the Earth moves on its axis, noting variables (Y6)

Investigation
Night & Day and the Shadow Ally. Can you design and implement some shadow investigations that will prove the movement of the Earth? Note whether shadow clocks or sundials tell us the time more accurately (Exploring, Problem solving, Pattern seeking, Fair testing, Observing over time)
Year 5 – Carry out shadow investigations that help support the idea that the Earth moves on its axis
Year 6 – Plan and carry out shadow investigations that help support the idea that the Earth moves on its axis, noting variables
Years 5&6 - Explore time zones and relate this to the movement of the Earth and use logic and knowledge to solve scientific problems


Vocabulary
Enquiry, evidence, star, sun, moon, sundial, shadow, axis, day, night, time-zone, Greenwich Meantime

Session 4 A moon month

Objectives

Can you design and implement some investigations that will help prove the movement of the moon around the Earth? Find out about this fascinating satellite and identify the ways in which this might help Galileo.

Science Objectives
i) Describe the movement of the Moon relative to the Earth
ii) Describe the Sun, Earth and Moon as approximately spherical bodies

Working Scientifically

  1. Planning different types of scientific enquiries to answer questions, including recognising and controlling variables where necessary
  2. Recording data and results of increasing complexity using scientific diagrams and labels
  3. Reporting and presenting findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal relationships and explanations of and degree of trust in results, in oral and written forms such as displays and other presentations
  4. Identifying scientific evidence that has been used to support or refute ideas or arguments

You Will Need

Provided Resources

  • Moon images
  • Lunar month sheet
  • Moon phases & lunar cycle diagram
  • Lunar/solar eclipse diagrams
  • Suggested links for moon & tides


Additional Resources

  • Spinning chairs
  • Polystyrene balls on sticks
  • Torches/table lamps


Weblinks

Extreme close up of moon from https://vimeo.com
Planet size and gravitational field strength from www.bbc.co.uk
The Moon and its orbit around Earth from www.bbc.co.uk
Stargazing: phases of the moon from www.bbc.co.uk
Evolution of the moon from Evolution of the moon
Moon phases from www.moonconnection.com
Stargazing moon guide from http://downloads.bbc.co.uk

Teaching and Activities

Teaching

  • Create a simulation of the moons lunar phases and record pictorially (Y5&6)
  • Use photos as a scientific source to identify features on the moon (Y5)
  • Research the effect the moon has on the Earth’s tides (Y6)

Activities

  1. Match lunar phases to relative positions of the Moon, Sun and Earth (Y5&6)
  2. Suggest (Y6) and carry out a simulation to demonstrate the moon’s changing appearance (Y5&6)
  3. Label key features of the moon (Y5)
  4. Research the relationship between the moon and the Earth’s tides (Y6)

Investigation
A Moon Month. Can you design and implement some investigations that will help prove the movement of the moon around the Earth? Find out about this fascinating satellite and identify the ways in which this might help Galileo. (Problem solving, Exploring, Analysing secondary sources)
Year 5 – Label key features of the moon and carry out a simulation to demonstrate the moon’s changing appearance
Year 6 - Suggest and carry out a simulation to demonstrate the moon’s changing appearance then research the relationship between the moon and the Earth’s tides
Years 5&6 - Match lunar phases to relative positions of the Moon, Sun and Earth


Vocabulary
Evidence, star, moon, eclipse, light, reflection, telescope, satellite, tide, mass, gravity, phase, lunar

Session 5 Seasonal sensations

Objectives

Explore seasons around the world and analyse data to help show the movement of the Earth around the sun. Can you design and implement some seasonal modelling that will demonstrate the role of the Earth’s tilt and movement around the sun in the creation of seasons?

Science Objectives
i) Describe the movement of Earth & other planets, relative to the Sun in the solar system

Working Scientifically

  1. Reporting and presenting findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal relationships and explanations of and degree of trust in results, in written forms
  2. Identifying scientific evidence that has been used to support or refute ideas or arguments

Other Curriculum Areas
Maths: Read and interpret information in tables

Teaching and Activities

Teaching

  • Use given observations to draw logical scientific conclusions (Y5&6)
  • Set out a scientific argument using evidence to back up ideas (Y5&6)
  • Compare the length of day to seasons (Y5&6)


Activities

  1. Explore time zones and relate these to the movement of the Earth, solving time problems(Y5&6)
  2. Use data to make seasonal observations (Y5)
  3. Analyse data to explain seasonal changes to day length, and link to the Earth’s tilt & solar orbit (Y6)

Investigation
Seasonal Sensations. Explore seasons around the world and analyse data to help show the movement of the Earth around the sun. Can you design and implement some seasonal modelling that will demonstrate the role of the Earth’s tilt and movement around the sun in the creation of seasons? (Problem solving, Exploring, Analysing secondary sources)
Year 5 - Use data to make seasonal observations
Year 6 - Analyse data to explain seasonal changes to day length, and link to the Earth’s tilt & solar orbit
Years 5&6 - Explore time zones and relate these to the movement of the Earth, solving time problems


Vocabulary
Evidence, direct/indirect light, axis, equinox, solstice, sun, season, hemisphere, longitude, latitude

Session 6 Entering the inquisition

Objectives

It’s time to send your evidence to Galileo for use at the inquisition. Will you have done enough to secure his freedom, or will he end up in a heliocentric hole of hopelessness?

Science Objectives
i) Describe the movement of the Earth, and other planets, relative to the Sun in the solar system
ii) Describe the movement of the Moon relative to the Earth
iii) Describe the Sun, Earth and Moon as approximately spherical bodies
iv) Use the idea of the Earth’s rotation to explain day and night and the apparent movement of the sun across the sky

Working Scientifically

  1. Reporting and presenting findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal relationships and explanations of and degree of trust in results, in oral and written forms such as displays and other presentations
  2. Identifying scientific evidence that has been used to support or refute ideas or arguments

You Will Need

Provided Resources

  • Example of a summary statement for the defence team
  • Quotes from Galileo


Additional Resources

  • ‘Portal’ box
  • A2 paper
  • Work from previous sessions

Teaching and Activities

Teaching

  • Use evidence gathered in previous sessions to support the argument for a heliocentric solar system (Y5&6)
  • Present findings in the form of an A2 poster (Y5&6)


Activities

  1. Create an A2 poster that presents findings and arguments for a heliocentric solar system (Y5&6)
  2. Collate findings and identify scientific evidence that back them up (Y5)
  3. Argue why Galileo’s findings should be accepted, based on scientific evidence (Y6)


Investigation
Entering The Inquisition. It’s time to send your evidence to Galileo for use at the inquisition. Will you have done enough to secure his freedom, or will he end up in a heliocentric hopelessness? (Problem solving, Analysing secondary sources)
Year 5 - Collate findings from the block and identify scientific evidence that back them up
Year 6 - Argue why Galileo’s findings should be accepted, based on scientific evidence explored through the block
Years 5&6 - Create an A2 poster that presents findings and arguments for a heliocentric solar system


Vocabulary
Enquiry, evidence, proof, theory, hypothesis, argument, idea, fact