Animals Including Humans

# Science Year 3/4 Fit for Success

Teignford hockey team have not won a match all season, and now is the time to turn things around if they want to win the league next year. Can you take on the challenge of coaching them to fitness? They need a whole pack of advice on diet, exercise and how to prevent injury, not to mention positive team spirit and self belief!

## Session 1 Think about food

### Objectives

You agree to help the team improve their performance by becoming their health and fitness advisors. Today your task is to discover how many portions of fruit and vegetables the team eat each day and how much sugar is in their daily diet.

Science Objectives
i) Identify that animals, including humans, need the right types and amount of nutrition and that they cannot make their own food. They get nutrition from what they eat.

Working Scientifically

1. Gather, record, classify and present data in a variety of ways to help answer questions.
2. Record findings using simple scientific language, bar charts and tables.

Other Curriculum Areas
Maths - Statistics

• Interpret and present data using bar charts, pictograms and tables (Yr3).
• Interpret and present discrete and continuous data using appropriate graphical methods, including bar charts and time graphs (Yr4).

### You Will Need

Provided Resources

• Challenge and Task PowerPoints
• Instructions on how to play Diet Riot
• Chart showing how much sugar is present in a variety of food and drink
• Animal sort cards (1 set per group - each set printed on a different colour paper cut up into 30 cards)
• Set of 5 Diet Riot labels for each group

• 2 PE hoops per group
• 6 team member information folders containing 2 printouts of the team member’s Health and Exercise survey
• Bag of granulated sugar and teaspoon
• Printouts of task sheets, bar chart, reference sheets and coloured crayons

### Lesson Planning

Teaching

• Understand that animals (including humans) can be grouped according to what they eat.
• Answer questions on diet by extracting data from a food survey and displaying it in tables and bar charts.
• Look for patterns and trends in the data and use this to ask further questions.
• Use survey data to answer questions and display it in the form of tables and bar charts.
• Look for trends and patterns in the data.

Activities

1. Play an active game to reinforce vocabulary and understanding of animal feeding categories.
2. Review data from a food survey to answer a question on either sugar intake or 5 a day portions.
3. Display data in tables and bar charts and use these to look for patterns and trends.

Investigation - pattern seeking, problem solving
Teignford Hockey team have done a health survey of their food, drink and exercise in a week. Review data from a food survey to answer a question on the consumption of either sugar or 5 a day portions and display the data in tables and bar charts. Use these to look for patterns and trends.
Year 3
- Count how many portions of fruit and vegetables their client has each day. Draw a bar graph.
Year 4 - Calculate number of spoonful’s of sugar are consumed each day and draw a graph with a suitable scale.

Vocabulary
Herbivore, carnivore, omnivore, nutrition, diet, food chain, data, table, bar chart

## Session 2 What is a balanced diet?

### Objectives

The players are eating too much sugar and not enough fruit and veg, but that may not be the only problem. Some players are overweight and need help to understand what is meant by a balanced diet. Are you up to the challenge of explaining food groups and nutrition using model meals?

Science Objectives
i) Identify that animals, including humans, need the right types and amount of nutrition and that they cannot make their own food. They get nutrition from what they eat.

Working Scientifically

1. Gather, record, classify and present data in a variety of ways to help answer questions.
2. Use results to draw simple conclusions, make predictions for new values, suggest improvements and raise further questions.

Other Curriculum Areas
Design and Technology

• Use research and develop design criteria to inform the design of innovative, functional, appealing products that are fit for purpose, aimed at particular individuals or groups.
• Select from and use a wider, more complex range of materials, taking into account their properties.

### You Will Need

Provided Resources

• Teaching and task PowerPoints
• Teachers’ notes
• Health and fitness advice sheet
• Food labels sheets

• Colour printout of Balanced Diet task sheet for each group
• 2 litre bottle of water with 1.2l marked
• A card copy of the Eatwell Plate sheet per group
• Scissors, glue sticks and pens
• Team member folders containing profiles and information gathered so far
• Selection of modelling materials including washing up sponges, smooth sponge foam blocks, foam cloths, washing up cloths, string and pasta varieties (see teachers’ notes)
• A piece of recycled card and a paper plate per pair of children
• A stack of plastic drinking cups (for plenary)
• Acrylic paints and paintbrushes and at least 12 plastic tubs
• PVA glue
• A hot glue gun (for teachers' use)

### Lesson Planning

Teaching

• Classify different foods according to their group (e.g. carbohydrates, proteins, dairy and fats).
• Know the nutritional properties of each food group and the importance of limiting fats and sugars.
• Use knowledge of nutrition and the Eatwell plate to design a balanced meal for a client .
• Model the meal to display on a paper plate selecting appropriate materials and techniques.

Activities

1. Create a collage of an Eatwell Plate in groups by sorting foods into categories.
2. Create a model of a balanced meal for a paper plate.
3. Use knowledge of nutrition to either make food labels or complete a sheet of health advice.

Investigation - classifying and identifying
The team need some advice on good nutrition and a healthy diet. Learn about different food groups and the importance of a balanced diet. Use knowledge of nutrition to give the team dietary advice and design and model some balanced meals.
Year 3 - Work together with the year 4s to create model balanced meals.
Year 4 - Help create the model meals and write labels for each food group to explain its role in the body.

Vocabulary
Carbohydrates, proteins, dairy, fats, sugars, vitamins, minerals, fibre, growth, repair, health, energy

## Session 3 Skeletons and bones

### Objectives

The hockey team members have had some problems with injuries and backache. They need expert advice from their fitness coaches so you need to brush up on your knowledge of skeletons, bones and joints.

Science Objectives
i) Identify that humans and some other animals have skeletons and muscles for support, protection and movement.

Working Scientifically

1. Identify differences, similarities or changes related to simple scientific ideas and processes.

Other Curriculum Areas
Design and Technology

• Build and apply a repertoire of knowledge, understanding and skills in order to design and make high-quality prototypes and products for a wide range of users (a puppet with strings).

### You Will Need

Provided Resources

• Yr 3 bone labels and Yr 4 task sheets
• Vertebrate or Invertebrate? Task
• Teaching, 5 lives and skeleton puppet PowerPoints
• Vertebrate or invertebrate game sheet
• Teachers’ notes

• A glove puppet, plastic gloves and scissors
• An old clean animal bone
• Plastic gloves, scissors and masking tape
• Game sheet for each hockey player group
• A piece of string (about 3m) and Plasticine or sticky tack
• Card printouts of skeleton puppet template
• Stiff black card (an A4 sheet per puppet) and masking tape
• Soft white art crayons or white oil pastels
• 1m of strong thread and 8 split pins per skeleton
• 2 garden sticks per skeleton (40-50cm is ideal)

### Lesson Planning

Teaching

• Understand that not all animals have an internal skeleton and that the presence of this is an important feature in classifying them.
• Know that a skeleton is needed for support, protection and movement.
• Learn and communicate knowledge of the skeleton through the construction of a string puppet with moving joints.

Activities

1. Play themed games to learn associated knowledge and vocabulary (Yr3 &4).
2. Make a skeleton string puppet that has moving joints (Yr3 &4).
3. Reinforce knowledge by naming bones on the puppets (Yr3) or writing an explanatory script (Yr4).
4. Puppeteer a skeleton dance (Yr3 &4).

Investigation - classifying and identifying, analysing secondary sources
As the team fitness coaches you need to know about bones and skeletons. Make a skeleton string puppet and use it to explain some important facts about bones.
Year 3
- Make puppet in groups and work on puppeteering a presentation on bones.
Year 4 - Make puppet in groups and write a script to explain the bones for the presentation.

Vocabulary
Vertebrate, invertebrate, bone, skeleton, skull, ribcage, pelvis, femur

## Session 4 Moving muscles

### Objectives

Muscle strains have caused problems for the hockey players and some people experience muscle fatigue during matches. Can you help? You will need to investigate the link between muscle strength and regular training and exercise.

Science Objectives
i) Identify that humans and some other animals have skeletons and muscles for support, protection and movement

Working Scientifically

1. Gather, record, classify and present data in a variety of ways to help in answering questions.
2. Use straightforward scientific evidence to answer questions or to support their findings-pattern seeking enquiry.

Other Curriculum Areas
Maths - Statistics

• Interpret and present data using bar charts, pictograms and tables (Yr 3).
• Interpret and present discrete and continuous data using appropriate graphical methods, including bar charts and time graphs (Yr 4).

### You Will Need

Provided Resources

• Swap jump record sheet
• Teaching and task PowerPoints
• Teachers’ notes

• A full water bottle for every child (their usual class drinking bottle will be fine)
• A drum
• A copy of the task sheet per group
• Rulers
• Marker pens and a flip chart marked with 2 axes

### Lesson Planning

Teaching

• Understand how muscles work in pairs to allow movement and maintain posture.
• Investigate whether people who do more sport have stronger muscles.
• Make decisions on what data to collect and how to tabulate it.
• Interpret data using a scattergram.

Activities

1. Investigate how muscles work in pairs (biceps & triceps) using a bottle of water as a weight (Yr3&4).
2. Collect data to investigate the link between leg muscle strength and either the type of regular exercise (Yr 3) or the amount of regular exercise (Yr 4).
3. With guidance display data as a scattergram and use it to look for a pattern in the data (Yr3&4).

Investigation - pattern seeking, problem solving
Some of the team have had injuries and want to know what they can do to help prevent this. Learn how muscles work in pairs and investigate the question “Do people have stronger muscles because they use them more?” Make predictions, gather data, discuss, display and interpret findings.
Year 3 - Record data on a task sheet with prompts and a table for results.
Year 4 - Record data on a task sheet with fewer prompts requiring more independence.

Vocabulary
Muscles, joints, tendons, contract, relax, biceps, triceps, data, scattergram

## Session 5 A breath of fresh air

### Objectives

Some of the hockey players report feeling out of breath when running up and down the hockey pitch in training and in matches. Could it be that improved fitness would mean they get less puffed out? It is your job to investigate this.

Science Objectives
i) identify that humans and some other animals have skeletons and muscles for support, protection and movement.

Working Scientifically

1. Setup simple practical enquiries and comparative and fair tests.
2. Make systematic and careful observations and, where appropriate, take accurate measurements using standard units.

Other Curriculum Areas
Maths - Statistics

• Interpret and present data using bar charts, pictograms and tables (Yr 3).
• Interpret and present discrete and continuous data using appropriate graphical methods, including bar charts and time graphs (Yr 4).

### You Will Need

Provided Resources

• Teaching PowerPoint
• Y3 task sheets printed double-sided and Y4 task sheets
• Teachers’ notes

• A stop clock or stop watch
• An empty flexible plastic water bottle
• Breathometers – enough for 1 per group made from a single sheet of tissue paper (30cm x 35cm approx.) and a strip of card (30cm x 4cm)
• P.E. shoes and any equipment needed for a burst of strenuous exercise e.g. skipping ropes
• Yr3 task sheets (1 each) printed double backed
• Yr4 task sheets (1 each)
• Squared paper or graph paper to display data in a char

### Lesson Planning

Teaching

• Know the diaphragm is used in breathing and the lungs transfer oxygen to the blood.
• Know that muscles need more oxygen to work hard and this affects breathing rate.
• Plan and conduct a fair test to answer a question.
• To choose how to display data to look for a link and communicate findings.

Activities

1. Learn how the heart and lungs get oxygen to the muscles where it is needed to make energy.
2. Plan and carry out an investigation in groups that attempts to answer a scientific question - Do people who exercise a lot get their breath back more quickly after strenuous exercise? (Yr3) or Do people who exercise a lot pant less after a burst of strenuous exercise? (Yr4)
3. Display and interpret data collected and seek to explain findings.

Investigation - fair testing, pattern seeking
The team get out of breath quickly as they run up and down the pitch. They want to know why and what they can do about it. Learn how the diaphragm is used in breathing to get oxygen into the blood. Plan and carry out an investigation to answer a health and fitness question.
Year 3
- Learn to take a pulse. Measure heart rate before and after exercise.
Year 4 - Plan and carry out an investigation to see if people who exercise regularly pant less.

Vocabulary
Lungs, diaphragm, heart, investigate, measure, compare, breathing rate

## Session 6 Health and fitness coaching session

### Objectives

It’s time to create your presentation for the hockey team based on all the research you have done and all the expertise you have gained. You will coach them into a fitter and healthier team that’s ready to take on the league and who knows; even win the cup next season.

Science Objectives
i) Identify that animals, including humans, need the right types and amount of nutrition, and that they cannot make their own food. They get nutrition from what they eat.
ii) Identify that humans and some other animals have skeletons and muscles for support, protection and movement.

Working Scientifically

1. Report on findings from enquiries, including oral and written explanations, displays or presentations of results and conclusions.
2. Identify differences, similarities or changes related to simple scientific ideas and processes.

Other Curriculum Areas
Maths - Statistics

• Interpret and present data using bar charts, pictograms and tables (Yr3).
• Interpret and present discrete and continuous data using appropriate graphical methods, including bar charts and time graphs (Yr4).

### You Will Need

Provided Resources

• Quiz and answers PowerPoints
• Quiz sheet
• 3 task sheets
• Teachers’ notes

• For the presentation each group will need access to all the resources they have produced during this block
• Hockey player information folders which should include at least 3 copies of their food and fitness questionnaire and all the task sheets, graphs, etc. produced over the previous 5 sessions

### Lesson Planning

Teaching

• Assess knowledge and understanding of the Yr3 Animals Including Humans content taught in this block
• Prepare presentations for others using notes and oral explanations backed up by scientific knowledge and research, demonstrations, graphs and charts.
• Explain data in the form of tables, graphs and charts from their own research.

Activities

1. Undertake a quiz that assesses all their knowledge and understanding on the block (Yr3 &4).
2. Create an illustrated presentation for the team on health and fitness, using resources they have made throughout the block and evidence from their own research (Yr3 &4).
3. Reflect on their own life and consider positive changes they could make to improve their health and fitness (Yr3 &4).

Investigation
Your advice pack for the team is almost complete but now they need to know the power of positive thinking. Give an illustrated presentation on health and fitness, addressing all the team problems using resources they have made throughout the block and evidence from their own research.
Year 3 /Year 4 - Work together in mixed ability groups. Have higher expectations with regard to year 4s on the level of explanation.

Vocabulary
Revision and assessment of all vocabulary content identified during the Yr3 Animals Including Humans block