Animals Including Humans

Science Year 3 Keeping Healthy

Become a team of personal trainers for clients in need of expert, health, dietary and training advice. Develop specialised knowledge, skills and understanding in nutrition, muscles, bones and joints and conduct your own research in order to answer your client’s questions. Make a presentation tailored to your client’s needs that will set them on the road to a healthier life style.

Session 1 Food for thought

Objectives

Get introduced to clients in need of advice on diet, health and exercise and take on the task of becoming a personal trainer. Tabulate, draw graphs and analyse data from a survey of their client’s diet and use it to answer questions.

Science Objectives
i) Identify that animals, including humans, need the right types and amount of nutrition, and that they cannot make their own food; they get nutrition from what they eat.

Working Scientifically

  1. Gather, record, classify and present data in a variety of ways to help answer questions.
  2. Record findings using simple scientific language, bar charts, and tables.

Other Curriculum Areas
Maths - Statistics

  • Interpret and present data using bar charts, pictograms and tables.
  • Solve one-step and two-step questions.

You Will Need

Provided Resources

  • Set of animal cards per group (on different coloured paper and cut up)
  • A set of 5 Diet Riot labels for each group (printable session resource)
  • 6 clients (prearranged for role play) or Hamilton resource alternative
  • 6 Client information folders
  • Printouts of task, bar chart and reference sheets

Additional Resources

  • 2 PE hoops per group
  • A completed Health and Exercise survey for each client
  • Bag of granulated sugar and teaspoon
  • Printouts of task, bar chart and reference sheets

Teaching and Activities

Teaching

  • Revise learning on carnivores, herbivores, omnivores by playing an active game.
  • Understand that animals (including humans) can be grouped according to what they eat.
  • Answer questions on diet by extracting data from a food survey and displaying it in tables and bar charts.
  • Look for patterns and trends in the data and use this to ask further questions.

Activities

  1. Play an active game to reinforce vocabulary, knowledge and understanding of animal feeding categories.
  2. Review data from a food survey to answer a question on the consumption of either sugar or 5 a day portions.
  3. Display data in tables and bar charts and use these to look for patterns and trends.

Investigation - pattern seeking
Review a food survey to answer questions on diet and look for patterns and trends display using tables and bar charts.

Vocabulary
Herbivore, carnivore, omnivore, nutrition, diet, food chain, data, table, bar chart

Session 2 A balanced diet

Objectives

Continue on the quest as personal trainers by becoming experts on nutrition. Use knowledge of food groups and a balanced diet to design healthy meals by creating lifelike models of food on paper plates.

Science Objectives
i) Identify that animals, including humans, need the right types and amount of nutrition, and that they cannot make their own food; they get nutrition from what they eat.

Working Scientifically

  1. Gather, record, classify and present data in a variety of ways to help in answering questions.
  2. Use results to draw simple conclusions, make predictions for new values, suggest improvements and raise further questions.

Other Curriculum Areas
Design and Technology

  • Use research and develop design criteria to inform the design of innovative, functional, appealing products that are fit for purpose, aimed at particular individuals or groups.
  • Select from and use a wider, more complex range of materials, taking into account their properties.

You Will Need

Provided Resources

  • Colour printout of Balanced Diet Task sheet for each group
  • A card copy of the Eatwell Plate sheet per group

Additional Resources

  • 2 litre bottle of water with 1.2 litre marked
  • Client folders containing profiles & information gathered so far
  • Selection of modelling materials including sponges, foam blocks, foam cloths, washing up cloths, string & pasta (see teachers’ notes)
  • A piece of recycled card & a paper plate per pair of children
  • A stack of plastic drinking cups (for plenary)
  • Acrylic paints & paintbrushes
  • At least 12 plastic tubs
  • PVA glue
  • Hot glue gun (for teachers’ use).


Teaching and Activities

Teaching

  • Understand the 5 food groups and the proportions of each needed to create a healthy, balanced diet.
  • Know the nutritional properties of carbohydrates, fruit and vegetables, proteins and dairy foods as well as importance of limiting fat and sugar intake.

Activities

  1. Create a collage of an Eatwell Plate in groups by sorting foods into categories.
  2. Use knowledge of nutrition to answer client’s dietary questions and design and model a balanced meal.
  3. Create a model of a balanced meal for a paper plate.

Investigation - exploring/analysing secondary sources
Use knowledge of food groups and a balanced diet to design healthy meals.

Vocabulary
Carbohydrates, proteins, dairy, fats, sugars, vitamins, minerals, fibre, growth, repair, health, energy

Session 3 Bones and skeletons

Objectives

This session you will become an expert on bones, joints and skeletons, acquiring scientific vocabulary and understanding whilst playing games and building your very own dancing skeleton string puppet.

Science Objectives
i) Identify that humans and some other animals have skeletons and muscles for support, protection and movement.

Other Curriculum Areas
Design and Technology

  • Build and apply a repertoire of knowledge, understanding and skills in order to design and make high-quality prototypes and products for a wide range of users (a puppet with strings).

You Will Need

Provided Resources

  • A printout of the game sheet for each client group
  • Card printouts of the skeleton puppet template

Additional Resources

  • A glove puppet
  • An old clean animal bone & plastic gloves for handling the bone safely
  • A piece of string (about 3m) & masking tape
  • Stiff black card (an A4 sheet per puppet)
  • Soft white art crayons or white oil pastels
  • Several lumps of Plasticine or sticky tack
  • 1m of strong thread & 8 split pins per skeleton
  • 2 garden sticks per skeleton (40 -50cm is ideal)

Weblinks
Film on human skeleton with other animals from www.bbc.co.uk
Film clip on invertebrate with exoskeletons from www.bbc.co.uk
YouTube clip of Dem Bones with lyrics from www.google.co.uk (consider downloading ahead of session to avoid unsuitable adverts)

Teaching and Activities

Teaching

  • Understand that not all animals have an internal skeleton and that the presence of this is an important feature in classifying them.
  • Know that a skeleton is needed for support, protection and movement.

Activities

  1. Play a game that involves the classification of animals as vertebrates and Invertebrates.
  2. Play another game called 5 Lives that will increase children’s knowledge of skeletons and bones whilst having fun.
  3. Make a skeleton string puppet that has moving joints.
  4. Reinforce knowledge by naming parts and functions on the puppets.
  5. Puppeteer a skeleton dance.

Investigation - exploring/analysing secondary sources
Create a skeleton string puppet that has moving joints.

Vocabulary
Vertebrate, invertebrate, bone, skeleton, skull, ribcage, pelvis, femur

Session 4 Muscles and movement

Objectives

Learn how muscles work in pairs and investigate the question 'Do people have stronger muscles because they use them more?' Make predictions, gather data, discuss, display and interpret findings.

Science Objectives
i) Identify that humans and some other animals have skeletons and muscles for support, protection and movement.

Working Scientifically

  1. Gather, record, classify and present data in a variety of ways to help in answering questions.
  2. Use straightforward scientific evidence to answer questions or to support findings - pattern seeking enquiry.

Other Curriculum Areas
Maths - Statistics

  • Interpret and present data using bar charts, pictograms and tables.
  • Understand and use simple scales (e.g. 2, 5, 10 units per cm) in pictograms and bar charts with increasing accuracy.
  • Continue to interpret data presented in many contexts.

Extended Writing Opportunities
Recount: Write up for the TV programme Newsround, as a recount, your investigation ‘Do some people have stronger muscles because they use them more?’

You Will Need

Provided Resources

  • A copy of the task sheet per group

Additional Resources

  • A full water bottle for every child (their usual class drinking bottle will be fine)
  • A drum
  • Pens, pencils and rulers
  • A flip chart marked with 2 axes
  • Marker pens


Teaching and Activities

Teaching

  • Understand how muscles work in pairs to allow movement and maintain posture.
  • Investigate whether people who do more sport have stronger muscles.

Activities

  1. Investigate how muscles work in pairs (biceps and triceps) using a bottle of water as a weight.
  2. Investigate the question –Do some people have stronger muscles because they use them more?
  3. With guidance, decide what data to collect, how to tabulate it and how to share out the work in the group.
  4. With guidance display data as a scattergram and use it to look for a pattern in the data.

Investigation - exploring/analysing secondary sources
Investigate the question –Do some people have stronger muscles because they use them more?

Vocabulary
Muscles, joints, tendons, contract, relax, biceps, triceps, data, scattergram

Session 5 Time to investigate

Objectives

Learn how the diaphragm is used in breathing and build an instrument to measure lung capacity. Plan and carry out an investigation to answer a health and fitness question.

Science Objectives

i) Identify that humans and some other animals have skeletons and muscles for support, protection and movement.

Working Scientifically

  1. Set up simple practical enquiries and comparative and fair tests.
  2. Make systematic and careful observations and, where appropriate, taking accurate measurements using standard units.
  3. Use results to draw simple conclusions, make predictions for new values, suggest improvements and raise further questions.

Other Curriculum Areas
Maths - Statistics

  • Interpret and present data using bar charts, pictograms and tables.
  • Solve one-step and two-step questions.

You Will Need

Provided Resources

  • Printouts of task sheet (and support sheets in case they are needed)

Additional Resources

  • 2 X 5 litre water bottle with caps
  • 2 x 70cm of clear plastic tubing
  • 2 large clear plastic containers (e.g. strong storage boxes)
  • Masking tape
  • Permanent marker pens
  • 2 measuring jugs
  • Disinfectant wipes
  • A range of other scientific equipment for investigations, e.g. clipboards, stopwatches, balance equipment, graph paper and/or squared paper


Teaching and Activities

Teaching

  • Know the diaphragm is used in breathing and the lungs transfer oxygen to the blood.
  • Know that muscles need more oxygen to work hard and this affects breathing rate.
  • Plan and carry out an investigation in groups to answer a specific given question.
  • Review findings and look for patterns in data that may/may not confirm predictions.

Activities

  1. Learn what lung capacity means and how to make an instrument to measure it in litres.
  2. Plan and carry out a practical investigation in groups that attempts to answer a scientific question.
  3. Display and interpret data collected to either confirm or reject predictions and seek to explain findings.

Investigation - exploring/analysing secondary sources
Plan and carry out a practical investigation in groups that attempts to answer a scientific question.

Vocabulary
Lungs, diaphragm, lung capacity, investigate, measure, compare

Session 6 Personal trainers' presentations

Objectives

Test and review all your knowledge on Health and Fitness gained so far. Then it’s time to make final preparations before meeting your clients to answer all their Health and Fitness questions in an impressive presentation illustrated with the fabulous research and resources you’ve produced.

Science Objectives

i) Identify that animals, including humans, need the right types and amount of nutrition, and that they cannot make their own food; they get nutrition from what they eat.

ii) Identify that humans and some other animals have skeletons and muscles for support, protection and movement.

Working Scientifically

  1. Report on findings from enquiries, including oral and written explanations, displays or presentations of results and conclusions.
  2. Identify differences, similarities or changes related to simple scientific ideas and processes.

Other Curriculum Areas
Maths - Statistics

  • Interpret and present data using bar charts, pictograms and tables.

Extended Writing Opportunities
Persuasive writing: Write a letter to the head teacher persuading them of some changes to the school day, lunchtime or break times which you feel would help pupils improve their health and fitness.

You Will Need

Additional Resources

  • Client Information Folders which should include the Client Advice Notes Sheets and all task sheets
  • Graphs, etc. produced over the previous 5 sessions including: bar charts on sugar intake and 5 a day fruit and vegetables, bar graphs and tables showing research on possible links between exercise, fitness, balance and lung capacity
  • The class scattergram from Session 4 if it shows a link between muscle strength and exercise
  • Plates of model food illustrating balanced meal ideas
  • Collages of the Eatwell Plate
  • Skeleton puppets
  • Instrument for measuring lung capacity

Teaching and Activities

Teaching

  • Assess knowledge and understanding of the Year 3 Animals Including Humans content taught in this block.
  • Report back to clients on all their health questions using oral explanations backed up by scientific knowledge and research, demonstrations, notes, graphs and charts.

Activities

  • Undertake a quiz that assesses all their knowledge and understanding on the block.
  • Give an illustrated presentation to clients on health and fitness, answering all their questions using resources they have made throughout the block and evidence from their own research.
  • Reflect on their own life and consider positive changes they could make to improve their health and fitness.

Investigation - communication
Give an illustrated presentation to clients on health and fitness, using resources they have made throughout the block and evidence from their own research.

Vocabulary
Revision and assessment of all vocabulary content identified during the Y3 Animals Including Humans block